OCEAN ENERGY & OBSERVATORIES
Monterey Accelerated Research System (MARS) is a cabled-based
observatory system, incorporating a benthic instrument node, AUVs, and
various benthic and moored instrumentation. The MARS infrastructure will
provide the capability to place and power instruments in areas of scientific
interest in various geographical sites. This project will
complete the design and then install an advanced cabled observatory in
Monterey Bay that will serve as the test bed for a state-of-the-art regional
ocean observatory, currently one component of the NSF Ocean Observatories
Initiative (OOI). The Monterey Accelerated Research System (MARS) cabled
observatory represents the next step toward harnessing the promise of new
power and communication technologies to provide a remote, continuous,
long-term, high-power, large-bandwidth infrastructure for multidisciplinary,
in situ exploration, observation, and experimentation in the deep sea.
MARS will be located in Monterey Bay offshore the Monterey Bay Aquarium
Research Institute (MBARI).
(Geophysical and Oceanographic
Station for Abyssal Research)
is the first European multidisciplinary observatory for deep-sea
monitoring, developed in the framework of European Commission research
projects since 1995 (GEOSTAR and GEOSTAR 2) co-ordinated by INGV.
The NeMO Project was conceived as a long-term study of the interactions
between geology, chemistry, and biology on a dynamic part of the mid-ocean
ridge system, using state-of the art technology. The goal is to make multiple
observations at one location over several years to document changes in
interrelated systems. Hence, the need for a multi-year seafloor observatory.
NeMO studies the dynamic interactions
between submarine volcanic activity and seafloor hotsprings at an observatory,
Axial seamount. A volcanic eruption occured at Axial in January 1998,
destroying some hydrothermal vent sites and creating new ones. Since then NeMO
scientists have been assessing the impact of the eruption and documenting the
on-going changes in Axial's summit caldera.
European Station for Time-series in the Ocean, Canary Islands
(or ‘Estación Europea de Series Temporales del Oceano, Islas Canarias’, ESTOC)
is located 100 km north (upstream) of Gran Canaria in the eastern boundary
flow of the subtropical North Atlantic gyre (at 29°10’N and 15°30’W). The
station is situated in the northern Canary Basin about 460 km west of the
Moroccan coast and is surrounded by deep water (water depth at ESTOC is 3600
m). The time-series station was initiated by a group of four scientists in
Spain and in Germany who are also the principal investigators: On the Canary
Islands, Octavio Llinás from the Instituto Canario de Ciencias Marinas (ICCM)
and Argeo Rodríguez de León from the Instituto Español de Oceanografia (IEO);
and in Germany, Gerold Siedler from the Institut für Meereskunde (Institute of
Marine Sciences) in Kiel (IfM) and Gerold Wefer from the Department of
Geosciences at the University of Bremen (GeoB). The German initiative is
funded as part of the German JGOFS by the German government (BMBF), the
Spanish institutes derive their funding from local and governmental sources.
The time-series data are used both as a contribution to WOCE and JGOFS.
PACIFIC TIME-SERIES UNDERSEA NETWORKED EXPERIMENTS
will be the world’s largest cable-linked seafloor observatory.
It will expand the boundaries of ocean exploration and give us a new way of
studying and understanding our planet. NEPTUNE is a joint U.S.-Canada venture
led by the University of Washington and, in Canada, by the University of
OCEAN ENERGY PROJECTS
The Pelamis Wave Energy Converter - The Pelamis is a
semi-submerged, articulated structure composed of cylindrical sections linked
by hinged joints. The wave-induced motion of these joints is resisted by
hydraulic rams, which pump high-pressure oil through hydraulic motors via
smoothing accumulators. The hydraulic motors drive electrical generators to
produce electricity. Power from all the joints is fed down a single umbilical
cable to a junction on the sea bed. Several devices can be connected together
and linked to shore through a single seabed cable.
Swing - The AWS is a unique concept. It is the only wave energy converter
that is fully submerged. Although its construction is simple (only one moving
part), the way it works is not so easy to understand. The
AWS consists of two cylinders. The lower cylinder is fixed to the bottom while
the upper cylinder, also called floater, moves up and down under the influence
of waves. Simultaneously magnets, which are fixed to the upper cylinder, move
along a coil. As a result, the motion of the floater is damped and electricity
is made. Magnets and coil are part of a linear generator.
W a v e g e n
- A world leader in wave energy. They developed and operate
Limpet, the world’s first
commercial-scale wave energy device that generates power for the grid.
The Limpet unit on Islay has an inclined oscillating
water column (OWC) that couples with the surge-dominated wave field adjacent
to the shore. The water depth at the entrance to the OWC is typically seven
metres. The design of the air chamber is important to maximise the
capture of wave energy and conversion to pneumatic power. The turbines
are carefully matched to the air chamber to maximise power output. The
performance has been optimised for annual average wave intensities of between
15 and 25kW/m. The water column feeds a pair of counter-rotating turbines,
each of which drives a 250kW generator, giving a nameplate rating of 500kW.
The Parabolic Wall - Focussing The Waves
Innovative `Wave Energy' Project Announced,
September 07, 2004,
This device will be constructed off of the coast of Rhode Island, USA. -
the crests will propagate parallel to
the axis of symmetry of the parabola. While slight variations will result in
little energy loss, the greater the angle between the axis of symmetry and the
propagation direction, the more the energy will be spread out.
Ocean Wave Energy Converter
- Ocean waves
move horizontally across a plane. Their movement causes vertical turbulence in
substrata to a depth correspondent with the size and period of the wave. Below
this depth, pressure and viscous shear diminish turbidity and attenuate water
particle motion. Relative movement between two buoys, with one floating on hydroface and the other suspended
at essentially undisturbed strata, reveals
significant change from effective wave motion. Consider one buoy, with a rod
attached to it, floating on the hydroface. Consider another buoy, with a tube
attached to it, submerged at the undisturbed depth by an air to weight ratio-
the volume of contained air to the weight of its container plus the attached
tube. Reciprocation occurs with the rod inside the tube as a result of ocean
wave troughing and cresting. However, horizontal wave forces push the floating
buoy away from the submerged buoy so that it cannot naturally return to the
initial vertical position. If another rod, with a weight mass secured on one
end, is attached to the bottom of the submerged buoy (with mass subtracted
from the original buoy mass) an improved air to weight configuration is
achieved but the relationship remains somewhat tenuous. A most stable assembly
is obtained if the width of the weight is greater than the submerged sphere
diameter. The arrangement simply resembles a cone, having apex pointed in an
upward direction, not unlike the rotated stance of a defensive boxer preparing
to receive a punch. With regard to readily manufactured components, this
conical form translates to the general shape of a tetrahedron module providing
suitable power generation means that convert wave energy to electrical energy.
Simple beginnings with table tennis ball and wire assemblies in water filled
wastebaskets led to working models construction and testing of the first thus
termed OWEC Ocean Wave Energy Converter™.
Power of Scotland Ltd
The wave-power-concept is based on a floating platform that continuously
shifts to accommodate the incoming waves. The waves break against a ramp (an
artificial, steep beach) and spill into a basin. Thus, the kinetic energy of
the waves has resulted in a volume of water - stored in the basin - containing
basin is placed on a certain height over the ocean's calm water level and the
water passes out through a number of low-pressure turbines that drive
electrical generators. The electricity generated leaves the power station via
an ocean cable.
WavePlane Production A/S -
The WavePlane is a floating construction. In opposition
to a boat it doesn't ride the waves up and down, but
remains at water level. The WavePlane uses the same principle as a floating
oil-platform with regard to lie still in waves. The WavePlane is a rigid
construction with a damping plate (a big vertical plate) in the bottom. In the
prototype there are three damping plates - one underneath the front and two
connected to the two down going tubes. As the area of the
plates is larger then the water level area of the device, the whole
construction mostly follows the movements of the damping plates, which is
minimal. The WavePlane is kept afloat by foam filled tanks. The
WavePlane converts the shape and speed of the incoming wave. When the lower
part of the wave hits the artificial beach it is speeded down a little,
whereby the upper part of the wave relatively is pushed forward and thereby is
"thrown" into the device. The WavePlane primarily uses the part of the wave
lying over water level (the wave crest). The water intake is a series of
reservoirs with plates resembling planning tools. This has given the device
it's name. The part of the wave, which is flushed in through the reservoirs,
will be "cut in a number of horizontal slices". The water flushing through
the lower reservoirs flows directly into the "fly-wheel-tube". Some of the
water flowing through the upper reservoirs is stored and is only used when the
wave crest has passed the device. All reservoirs are getting narrower towards
the "fly-wheel-tube". The water thereby is squeezed and as a result the speed
goes up (principle of Bernoulli). As the kinetic part of the energy goes up
with the square of the speed of the water, a small increase of speed gives a
relatively large increase of kinetic energy. All
water flushing passed by the reservoirs of the WavePlane will be squeezed into
the side of the fly-wheel-tube, whereby the water is let into a whirling
movement. The rotation of this whorl is so strong that it continues during the
period of two to three "missing" waves. Even though the water coming to the
WavePlane has an irregular pulse, the conversion of flow through the
fly-wheel-tube results in an even flowing and rotating stream.
Energy pioneers have launched the world's first
offshore tidal energy turbine off the Devon coast.
The world's first marine current turbine is being set up just off the coast of
Lynmouth, North Devon. This experiment in harnessing renewable energy from the
sea begins with the installation of a single turbine capable of producing 300
KW of electricity. The £3m turbine has been built into the seabed about a
kilometer and a half (one mile) offshore from Lynmouth. The single 11
meter-long rotor blade will be capable of producing 300 kilowatts of
electricity and will be a test-bed for further tidal turbines.
the trial is successful commercial production of marine turbines could begin
as early as 2006. Research suggests they have the potential to be four times
more efficient than wind turbines of a similar size. Tidal energy turbine:
OCEAN WIND ENERGY PROJECTS
International Ocean Projects
Consortium on Continental Margins (IRCCM)
- Academic Consortium Members: Alfred-Wegener-Institut
(AWI), University of Bremen (Marum), IfM-Geomar in Kiel, the University of
New Hampshire, University of Washington, IfM-Geomar, Rice University, and
the Max-Planck-Institut for Marine Microbiology, Bremen.
The International Research
Consortium on Continental Margins (IRCCM) has decided to focus research
activities on continental margins on surface and subsurface imaging, fluid
flow and the methane cycle. The research object is the entire sedimentary
sequence on continental margins starting with deeply buried sediments and
moving upward to shallower sediments up to the sediment/water interface. The
water column above the sedimentary sequence will also be incorporated in the
research program, as far as input from the sedimentary column and the
interrelationship between water column and sediment in terms of exchange
processes is concerned. The air/water interface will be included mainly for
considering exchange phenomena of relevance to climate and global change. At
the bottom of the sedimentary sequence, a base line will be drawn with
respect to those sediments, which cannot generate any more thermogenic
methane. This baseline has to be drawn around 2% to 3% vitrinite reflectance.
It will be determined through basin modelling technology.
European project AMORES is studying four contrasting hydrothermal
fields in the Atlantic Ocean to find out how heat and matter are dispersed
into the Atlantic. It is using large surface ships combined with smaller
submersibles for deep-sea investigations to collect information about the
physical and chemical processes that occur around hydrothermal vents and
to identify potentially useful bacterial species.
ENAM project is the European North Atlantic margin between the Norwegian
margin and the Celtic Sea. Scientists from ENAM 2 are studying
sedimentation patterns from the shelf edge, down through the continental
slope and finally into the deep-sea trench of the North Atlantic.
European Commission MAST programme (Marine Science and
Technology) - study the often dangerous environment of the seabed.
EUREKA projects, co-ordinated under the EUROMAR umbrella: 1.
ALIPOR Project - This automatic lander can sink to the sea floor under
its own weight and then conduct experiments, gather data and return to the
surface when finished. 2. SIRENE is a remote-controlled-carrier, which
can position underwater laboratories with extreme precision at depths of
up to 6000 metres using advanced tele-acoustic communication. 3. The EUROMAR
project ROMAN has developed a heavy duty deep-sea robot that can carry
out heavy jobs at great depths, taking over tasks that are too dangerous
for human divers. 4. AMADEUS is a research programme to improve the
dexterity and sensory ability of remote-controlled underwater manipulation
systems. This final prototype should be able to sample organisms, sediment
and rocks with extreme accuracy.
- 1. To confirm the existence of rogue waves and their risk of
encounter. Existing measurements and hindcast modeling will be used to better
understand the shape and impacts of extreme waves in relation with ship/offshore
accidents. Modern measurement techniques will be exploited towards the
recognition of extreme individual waves and their regional probability of
occurrence. 2. To implement the improved knowledge of freak waves to modern ship
design, by having involved the two marine communities. 3. To develop forecast
criteria for rogue waves with the aid of physical, mathematical statistical and
deterministic wave model tests and by that to improve security for human life.
4. To disseminate and exploit the project results by the project members,
covering the marine design/operation side, the wave science community, system
providers and certifying institutions.
ASOF-N - Arctic Subarctic Ocean Flux-Array for
European Climate - North. The objectives
of the proposal are to determine the heat flux into the Arctic Ocean and the
freshwater flux by sea ice and water from the Arctic Ocean into the Nordic Seas
in order to identify and model the processes which cause the fluxes to vary on
interannual and longer time scales and to identify a minimum set of choke point
arrays which characterise the flow conditions to sufficient accuracy to estimate
the flux variability and thus become a contribution to the a global ocean and
climate observing system.
International Shipping Projects
European project. SEABUS-HYDAER is developing a completely new concept in
marine transport: a hybrid between a plane and a ship. Although Seabus never
leaves the water, most of its lift power is provided by the wings. This gives
it the capacity to travel very fast. Ferries currently in use have top speed
of about 40 knots; Seabus beats this hands down, achieving around 120 knots
(220 km/h) whilst using 20% less fuel.
Alternative Energy Projects