Reading Assignments:


Catalog Data: OCE 4545 HYDROACOUSTICS (3 credits). The theoretical study of the fundamental relations, general theory and shallow water transmission of energy in the ocean. Detailed coverage of components of stress, strain and motion, waves of finite amplitude, ray characteristics, refraction of dispersive wave train, boundary conditions and surface image solutions.

Prerequisites: OCE 3030, MTH 2104

Textbook: A.D. Waite, SONAR for Practising Engineers, 3rd Edition, Wiley, 2002. ISBN: 0-471-49750-9


Course objectives: To introduce the theory and application of underwater sound


Professional Component: Engineering Science: 3 credits or 100%

Course vs. objectives: This course is designed to address the Program Objectives 1, 2, and 3. The course supports the following outcomes in providing the students:

For A Start Checkout the website Discovery of SOUND IN THE SEA


MWF 9:00 a.m. - 9:50 a.m. - Link E250

Final: Tuesday, December 11, 8:00 a.m. - 10:00 a.m.

Weeks (1-4)     Aug 26-Sept 20 Uses of Hydroacoustics. Sound, Pressure, Waves. Decibels. The Acoustic Wave Equation. The Acoustic Momentum Equation. Harmonic Spreading Waves. Acoustic Sources. Particle Velocities. Acoustic Intensity and Sound Power. Doublets. Circular Pistons.
Week 5            Sept 23-27 SONAR EQUATIONS: Active Equation, Passive Equation
Week 6 Oct 1-7 SONAR ARRAYS: Directivity. Calibration. Beam Forming
Weeks (7-9)     Oct 8-26 PROPAGATION OF SOUND: Spreading Laws. Absorption of Sound. Velocity of Sound in Seawater. Velocity Distribution in Seawater. Propagation Theory. Surface Effects. Sound Channels (mixed and deep). Convergence Zones.
Weeks (10-11)  Oct 29-Nov 9 AMBIENT NOISE: Sources. Deep water Sources. Shallow Sources. Characteristics of Ambient Noise.
Week 12          Nov 12-16 REVERBERATION: Sources of Reverberation. Reverberation Theory. Effects of Air Bubbles. Surface Reverberation. Bottom Reverberation.
Week 13          Nov 19-23 SONAR TARGETS: Target Strengths of ideal bodies. Target Strengths of real bodies. Causes of Echos.
Week 14          Nov 26-Nov 30 RADIATED and SELF NOISE: Noise Spectra. Sources of radiated Noise. Propeller Noise.  Waterfall Displays. Flow Noise.
Week 15          Dec 3-7 Review & Sonar videos


Instructor: Dr. Stephen Wood Office: room 212(Link building)

Tel: 674-7244

Email: swood@fit.edu


Prior to each class you are required to read the material indicated in the syllabus. The reading material will be of reasonable length, and you are expected to go through both the text and examples. At the beginning of each class, you will be required to turn in a one page summary of the reading assignment.

The summary should be TYPED, be NO MORE THAN ONE PAGE, and as a minimum should include a description of the material, and a list of the examples treated in the text. There is ABSOLUTELY no make-up for the summaries. But if you have to miss the lecture, you can still turn in the summary in my mailbox, anytime BEFORE the start of the class.


Since the reading summaries will be collected at the beginning of the period, you should arrive on time.


There will be three comprehensive tests as indicated in the syllabus. No make-up test will be given except in very exceptional circumstances (e.g., long and documented illness).


You can team up with another student to do the homework. All homework assigned during a given week, is due on the Tuesday of the following week. Late homework will not be accepted for grading, but will be noted as completed. Please come to see me anytime you have a problem understanding a homework.

Use engineering paper, 1 problem per sheet, unfolded, stapled. (See attached handout)


You will be asked to team up with other students to do a term project. The objective of the project is to apply what you learn in class to a design.


My teaching philosophy is to encourage cooperation not competition, therefore the grades will not be curved. You have many opportunities to be rewarded for your work, according to the following mix:

The following scale will be used to determine letter grades:


7. OFFICE HOURS: MWF 10:00 - 11:00 & by appointment or when my office door is open :-)

You are strongly encouraged to see me in my office (even in non-office hours, in which case you should make an appointment). The best way to contact me will be through Email or phone. Before coming to see me, calling me, or emailing me, please think your questions through in advance, and read the corresponding text in your book or notes.

Please, come to see me if you have any questions!


This file was last updated : July 3, 2007.  For more information contact Dr. Stephen Wood