Topics (2017/2018)

Team 1: Custom Propulsion Project - 1) Christopher Field, 2) Andrew Schilling, 3) Bridgette Soucy, 4) Henry Tanguay

Team 2: Magnetic Wave Energy Device - 1) Erwin Horvath, 2) Julie McCarthy, 3) Alejander Ortiz, 4) Ebrahim Bootwala

Team 3: Ocean Energy II - 1) Samuel Boyd, 2) Daryoush Keshavarz Pakseresht, 3) Jessica Rivera,

Team 4: Big Geek (ROV) - 1) Melanie MacBain, 2) David Eidelman, 3) Josephine Schamle, 4) Liesel Beckett 5) Patrick Amy

Team 5: Solar Boat - 1) Tristan Albury, 2) Read Beigel, 3) Erin Splain, 4) Joel Tunceren, 5) Derek Weiss

Unknown: Cody Summerlin, Ticer Pfeifer, Emily Iseley, John Fahey, Grant Peel, Austin Causey

Topics (2016/2017)

Team 1: (Hunter Foundation supported) SATIRE (2 - Year Project) Sub-Sea Autonomous Traffic Identifying Recon Explorer

An Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) disguised as a trashed tire that can provide defense support. This AUV would stealthily maneuver into a harbor and, using hydrophones, listen to the traffic going in and out of a harbor. Finally, it should be able to maneuver into the harbor from a distance of five miles as well as back out of the harbor. This technology is targeted to effectively and reliably monitor harbor and coastal areas to detect shipping, coastal threats, dangers, processes and coastal zone changes. The end product of the project will be a fully automated, autonomous and cost efficient system, combining both survey (video, hydrophones - passive sound collection, multi-beam sonar / side-scan sonar / sub-bottom profiler) and sampling (for example, turbidity, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, radioactivity, hydrocarbons, chlorophyll, algae, phytoplankton, etc.) tools.

Team 2: Coastal Engineering - An Adjustable Wave Tank Insert

The Adjustable Wave Tank Insert is an underwater device designed to alter seafloor topography in a wave tank. The UNDERDOGS is a computer operated apparatus that is adaptable to any sized wave tank. The insert can be used to examine wave damping and artificial breakwaters, mimic various seafloors, generate various wave types and many other coastal engineering processes. The design consists of a series of linear actuators with an RC servo in a grid formation all inside of a waterproof housing. The RC servo linear actuators allow the user to adjust the various heights of the apparatus easily and quickly from a laptop computer without needing to move anything in or out of the wave tank while in use.

The primary goal of the UNDERDOGS is a computer controlled seafloor device that can be used scientifically as well as for education. The apparatus is designed for coastal engineers to examine the relationship of the seafloor to wave characteristics and behavior in a lab environment. The design is also meant for large scale use in commercial wave pools for the purpose of generating different types of surfing waves.

Team 3: Solar Powered Boat -  REAPERS (2 - Year Project) Renewable Energy Actuating Perpetrating Electric Racing System

The 2016 Solar Boat Team was founded in response to a call for entries to the Yacht Club de Monaco's (YCM) Solar1 Competition. The team is comprised of five Ocean Engineering undergraduates with interests in renewable energy, material and composite design, naval architecture, marine powering systems, and hydromechanics.

The Solar Boat design project aims to develop the technology to make solar-electric people-carrying vessels a viable option over their fossil fuel powered counterparts. The success of electric vehicle companies like Tesla Motors shows the market value of replacing fossil fuel powered transportation with electrics.


Topics (2015/2016)

Team 1: (Harris Corporation Sponsored) Underwater Archaeology Crawler (Report)



The Remotely Operated Sea Crawler recently underwent sea-trials off of the east coast of Florida,. Remotely operated crawlers are specialized vehicles that allow for underwater intervention by staying in direct contact with the seafloor. The crawler offers a very stable platform for manipulating objects or for taking measurements. At Florida Institute of Technology a hybrid remotely operated crawler has been developed for archaeological and scientific activities within coastal regions of the ocean. This hybrid vehicle combines a standard 40-cm high, 53-cm wide, 71-cm long ROV flyer with a 1.0-m high, 1.52-m wide, 2.8-m long remotely operated underwater crawler for multiple research activities such as underwater archaeology documentation and artifact removal. Named the RG-V, the hybrid vehicle is currently designed to operate in depths down to 100-ft which will be extended down to 350-ft. The vehicle is controlled by a remote control cable from the beach or boat and soon to be equipped with video, still cameras and robotic grippers. Capable of carrying most environmental data gathering instruments the crawler is also able to "fly" when necessary by filling flotation chambers using its four mounted thrusters. This capability allows the vehicle to jump from one side of a shipwreck to another or to fly over sensitive regions such as reefs.




Team 2: Little Flume testing & Dual Spiral Turbine (Standard & Composites - 3-D printing) (Report1, Report2)

The Bury, Fluidize, Removal (BFR) is a sand management system designed to self-bury in a sandy bottom, then fluidize the surrounding sand and pump out that slurry. Fluidization, regarding the BFR System's application, is the process of pumping a fluid into a non-fluid medium (i.e. sand) to make it less densely compact and "fluid." Current sand management operations commonly employed are often very costly, unsightly and cause numerous small inconveniences such as blocking boat traffic. Adopting the method of a fluidization system has the potential to reduce operations and management costs for sand bypassing.

The Ocean Engineering students at Florida Tech using a Hydrodynamic Tesla Wheel Flume tested propeller/turbine prototypes to determine an which type is version is ideal for ocean current energy conversion. The Tesla pump used was designed and built by ocean engineering .

Team 3: Ordnance Removal Crawler

The Ocean Engineering students at Florida Tech developed an advanced mine and unexploded ordnance hunting, assessment and removal technologies on an Unmanned Undersea Vehicle (UUV). The objective of this project is to develop a technology remediate military munitions, nuclear waste, or archaeological artifacts found at underwater sites. The vehicle will be capable of operating in a wide variety of aquatic environments such as ponds, lakes, rivers, estuaries, and coastal and open ocean areas. Munitions such as small projectiles and mortars to large bombs or archaeological artifacts will be recoverable in water depths up to 35 meters.

Team 4: Solar Powered Boat (Report)

The Ocean Engineering students at Florida Tech developed a competition solar boat for the Solar1 Monte Carlo Cup 2015. The Solar1 races were created to promote the use of solar power in our every day lives. This race is a great opportunity to animate and excite a new generation, whilst also focusing their attention on important issues such as renewable energy.

Topics (2014/2015)

Team 1: (Harris Corporation Sponsored) Underwater Archaeology Crawler (Report, Ocean's 2014 Paper)

With an ROV Eye-in-the-Sky, Scuba Diver Controls, and Buoyancy Control, Manipulators etc

Team 2: Naval Arch: Flume (part 4) (Report, Ocean's 2014 Paper)

Team 3: Sedimement Transport - Fluidizer, pump/dredge system (Report)

Topics (2013/2014)

Team 1: (Harris Corporation Sponsored) Underwater Archaeology Crawler (Report, Ocean's 2013 Paper)

With an ROV Eye-in-the-Sky, Scuba Diver Controls, and Buoyancy Control, Manipulators etc

Team 2: Naval Arch: Flume (part 3)

Team 3: Ocean Energy & Water Purification (Wing Wave System)  (Report)


Topics (2012/2013)

Team 1: Ocean Energy / Dual Spiral Turbine (TURTLES) (Report)

Team 2: Ocean Energy - Pump / GECCO / Wing Wave Systems (Report, Cruise Report, Ocean's 2013 Paper1, Ocean's 2013 Paper2, Ocean's 2013 Paper 3)

Team 3: Naval Arch - (RADICAL V) Wave Rider (Report)

Team 4: Naval Arch - (NARWHALES) Continuation of Flume (Report, Ocean's 2013 Paper)



Topics (2011/2012)

Team 1: FORCE - ROV for CAVE / SHIPWRECK (Cruise Report)

Team 2: ROSCo - REMOTELY OPERATED CRAWLER (Video, Final Report, Cruise Report)


 Team 4: GECCO - OCEAN ENERGY SYSTEM (Final Report)





5) S.O.N.A.R. Programming: Computer Science/Engineering-  Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV)

Inspection/surveying of offshore reefs specifically the Lophelia Reefs off the east coast of Florida


1)      Advisors: Jessica Haig, Mathew Jordan, Carlos Vizcarrondo


Topics (2010/2011)

1)   Ocean Energy / Wave Energy/ Coastal Engineering: Wing Wave Energy (Final Report, Preliminary Practice Deployment Cruise Report)

The design and development of a wave action wing to eventually be deployed off the coast of Melbourne to generate electrical energy.  This device will require a complete analysis of the coastal areas off of Melbourne such as average wave spectrum, sediment transport in the area of where the device  will be installed - from storm or wave action. Foundation design and other coastal engineering parameters along with the actual design parameters of the system due to the coastal characteristics of the area will also be part of the project.

2) Underwater Technology: Crawler ROV (Final Report, Published Paper)

The design and development of a Crawler Remotely Operated Vehicle.

3) S.O.N.A.R.: Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV) (Final Report)

Inspection/surveying of offshore reefs specifically the Lophelia Reefs off the east coast of Florida











4) Ganett - Air - Sea Underwater Vehicle (Final Report) Northrop Grumman Award Winner!

5) Surface Effect Craft (Final Report, Conference Paper)


Topics (2009/2010)

1)   Ocean Energy / Coastal Engineering: Spiral Turbine [Winner of the Northrop Grumman Award!!!]

 (Brochure, Final Report) The design and development of an ocean/river energy device for generating electricity. 

2) Ocean Energy & Naval Arch: (Brochure pg1, pg2, Final Report) The design and development of an ocean/river energy device for generating electricity. 












3) Ocean Energy: Vertical Turbine (Brochure, Final Report) 




4) Naval  Architect/Ocean Wave Energy: (Final Report) Patent Pending



5) Underwater Technology: ROV Part II (Brochure, Final Report)

The continued design and development of a commercial grade Remotely Operated Vehicle.  


(MTS/SNAME Project) Naval Arch: Fuel Cell Powered One-Man Wet Submarine Part II. (Report Addendum)

The continued conversion of an old human powered submarine hull into a one-man fuel cell powered submarine. Some of the members must be FIT scuba certified during the testing phase.

David Farris, Justin Gordon,  Colin Meigs

Topics (2008/2009)

1)   Naval Arch I: Fuel Cell Powered One-Man Wet Submarine - Part I. (Brochure, Final Report, Fuel Cell Info)

The conversion of an old human powered submarine hull into a one-man fuel cell powered submarine.  The vehicle resides in the Underwater Tech Lab. Ryan Gielow,  Taylor Paul, David Farris, Justin Gordon,  Colin Meigs

2) Underwater Technology: ROV Part I (Brochure, Final Report)

The design and development of a commercial grade ROV that will be marketable, have high performance characteristics, advanced systems, and be aesthetically pleasing for the customer.  Mike Plasker, Amanda Lea Mackintosh,   Amy Pothier,  Kelley Pitts,  Jeff Pollard

3) Ocean Energy / Coastal Engineering: MMWG (Brochure, Final Report)

The design and development of a wave action wing  - lost at sea. Sean Cox, Michael Mann, Michael Gerlach,  Khoury Mains,  Mike Osborn

4) Naval Arch: "M.A.H.I mahi - Marine Advancement by Hydrodynamic Input" (Final Report) - so until further notice information can only be obtained by contacting Dr. Stephen Wood,  Linzy Quandt, Makembu Mcguire, Andrea McAllister,  Kevin Donnelly    

Topics (2007/2008)

1) (OceanEnergy) Ocean Energy Technology for Florida: (Final ReportShannon Barrette, Martin Durkin,  Kathleen McMonagle, Thomas Mertzlufft, Zackary Miller, Julianne O'Brian

2) (SeaWeedROV) Remotely Operated Vehicle: (Brochure, Final Report) Nicholas Abruzzini, Janelle Boisvert, Katherine Dobek, Anthony Tedeschi

3) CODAC - Coastal-Operation Data Acquisition Catamaran: (Brochure, Final Report) Stephanie Groleau, Joshua Revord, Tyler Robbins, Bob Vandedrinck

4) (MantA-UV) Autonomous Glider II: (Final Report, Sponsors) Jean Valcin, Christian Flemming, Sam Arden, Jason Borman

Topics (2006/2007)

1) Autonomous Mobile Buoy (A-M-B) [ Winner of the President's Cup]: (Proposal, Brochure, Final Report, Published Paper: Oceans 2007 Aberdeen) Zachary Pfeiffer, Michelle Rees, Safia Tappan, Derek Tepley

2) AUV Powered Glider : (Brochure, Final Report, Published Paper: Oceans 2007 Aberdeen, Sponsors) Todd Allen, Joseph Caldwell, Sean Kuhn, Computer Science: Seth Noyes


3) Displacement Powered Catamaran: (Brochure, Final Report) Brian Daly, Clay Danielson, John Montgomery, Andrew Stern

4) Hydrofoil Powerboat: (Brochure, Final Report) Mirela Dalanaj, Justin Eickmeier, Jason Gray, Matthew Kotecki

5) Maelstrom: Dynamic aging tank (Final Report) Brian Biera

Topics (2005/2006)

1) ROSS - Remotely Operated Surf-Zone Surveyer (Final Report) (Adam Outlaw, Jenna Vogt, Walker Dawson)

2) PHISH - Perfected High-Speed Internal-Combustion Solar Hybrid (Final Report) (Adam Lucey, Mark Stroik, Zak Chester, Enrique Acuna)

3) HY-PROP JET BOAT - Hybrid Propane/Hydrogen and Electric Powered Jet Boat (Final Report) (Michael Card, Chris Cawood, Steve Martyr, John Whitehead)

4) WAV - Equatic Screens (Final Report) (Dana Arnouil, Eric Mitchell, Scott Brown, Abbie Dehnke)

Topics (2004/2005)

1) AUV - UXB/ AUV Kamikaze (Final Report, Published Paper): to be deployed on the Vailulu'u Crater (14 deg 12.9' S and 169 deg 3.5' W) off of American Samoa. Operating Depth: 1000 meters. (Arial Nulph, Justin Enjo, Lyndsay Freeman, Daniel Olday, Rafael Oller)

2) SPROVER ( Surf Profile Remotely Operated Vehicle) (Final Report, Published Paper) previously the MARC-1 ROV Crawler (redesigned everything the teams did in 1999 and 2000): to be deployed off the coast of Florida for various shallow water, surf-zone experiments. Operating Depth: 5 meters. (Jeffrey Birmingham, Brian Smetts, Nick Dugelay, Niraj Patel)

3) LOMAC - Mono-hull (Final Report, extra pgs, Presentation), (Casey Conner, Austin Graham, Johnny Sebastian, Brian Biera, Scott Naro-Norman)

Topic (2003/2004)

1) Hornet II ROV, (Final Report) (Misha Dembicki, Margaret Boshek)

2) Human Powered Submarine (MISS-FIT) (Ryan Halonen, Jeff Bloomer, Raymond Co, Jesse Davis, Katherine Fought, Heather McQuillen, Ian Stifle, Ashley Vogl, Gary Randall)

3) LOMAC - Catamaran, a Littoral Operations Mulit-Purpose Auxiliary Craft (Final Report) (Travis Burland, Mark Cencer, Patrick Hutton)

Topic (2002/2003)

1) The Manta Ray Project - Surf Zone Capable AUV, (Nakul Saran, Magali Armando, Eduardo Gonzalez, Aubrey Kozak, Scott Hudson)

2) HYSWAS - Hydrofoil Small Water-plane Area Ship "An investigation of a Novel Ship Hull", (Robert Ernst, Jobe Galli, Roberto Porro)

3) AUVSI - Barracuda (not completed due to 9-11-01), (Maura Boswell, Nathaniel Dibling)

4) Diver Platform and Transportation System (DPATS), (Joe Morrow, Brett Bailey, David Carre)

Topic (2001/2002)

2) Diver Platform and Transportation System (DPATS), (Beau Brooks, Dianna Genton, Joshua Henson, Armand Herold)

3) Human Powered Submarine (U-MANATEE), (Jeremy Denman, Stephanie Criss, Carla Harris, Jason Soares, Virgil Russell)

4) The Design of a Portable Propulsion System Incorporating the Magnus Effect, (Doug Guardin, Mike Fancher, Vince Paillot)

5) SWATH Lab Improved Catamaran Experiment (S.L.I.C.E.), (Nick Cataldo, Andrew Busa, Josh Henderson, Mike Vander Werf)

Topic (2000/2001)

1) Eurika (part II): Design of an Enhanced deep Vee Planing Hull for the reduction of Planing Resistance, (Marc Damon, Nicola Samuelson, Jens R. Trelles, Arthur Touzot)

2) International America's Cup Class Keel and Bulb Design, (Chris Duer, Ryan Roberts)

3) Surface DPV (Diver Personal Vehicle), (Amy Brewer, Tauri Powell, Eva Weissman)

4) Human Powered Submarine (Sub-Variable later renamed U-MANATEE), (Dario Robledo, Matthew Pressel, Nicholas Callahan)

5) ROV - Crawler upgrade (M.A.R.C. - I) Modification of the MARC - Waterproofing and Functionality, (Josiah Berg, Donald Cresitello, Adam Kay)

Topic (1999/2000)

1) The Design of a 44 Foot Open Sports-Fisherman (Report), (Devin S. Paul)

2)  Human Powered Submarine - The Next Generation of SUB-VARIABLE (Proposal, Report), (Bryan Flynn, Kathleen Fry, Devin S. Paul, Chris Walker) The team designed a new control system and modified the propulsion system for the existing submarine known as "Sub-Variable." The purpose of the design is to improve maneuverability of the sub and to enhance the durability of the propulsion system.

3) Feasibility Study of Using Ships to Protect Harbor Entrances in Severe Weather Conditions (Report Doc1, Doc2), (Chris Creely, James Gray, Bill Owens, Ted Whitiak) The objective was to determine the feasibility of using a string of supply ships to protect a harbor from wind driven waves while one of them enters to resupply. A scale model of a supply vessel was constructed and tested in the wave channel for its effect on wave height.

4) Design of an AUV Platform (Proposal, Report1, Report2), (Chris Lathan, Sherece Wade)

5) The Eureka Project - An Advanced Design for a Deep Vee Planing Craft (Report Doc1, Doc2), (Veronica Bobel, Laurie Knowles) The Eureka project team designed an advanced planing craft based on the stepped hull concept. The new design was then compared with conventional steppless boat. Two models were produced with the help of "Sea-Ray Boats Inc." and tested in open waters.

6) ROV - Crawler upgrade (M.A.R.C. - I  Proposal, Report) Modification of the MARC for beach profiling. (Jennifer Davis, Joshua Davis, Ely Mahen, Christin Perkinson) The "Crawler Team" designed the instrumentation necessary to obtain beach profiles using a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) as the instrument platform.

Topic (1998)

1) Remotely Operated Vehicle (Sponge Bob - Final Report), (Anton Flewelling)

2) Modular Amphibious Research Crawler (M.A.R.C. - I  Final Report, extras) Design and Construction of a Remotely Operated Vehicle for Coastal Studies (Adrian Mackenna, Jon Cies, Lee Frey)

3) Prop Buddy: The Next Generation Propeller Guard (Final Report), (Stacy Roberts, Hiromi Nakamura, Kari Chaney)

4) Modularly Constructed High Speed Catamaran (Final Report), (Andrew McKay, Tristan Touzot, Scott Mulligan)

5)  The Surface Riding Submersible: “Seal Submarine” (Proposal)(Charles Cousin, Aaron Gelfand, Chiquinquira Gonzalez, Marta Ramos)

Topic (1997)

1) Human Powered Submarine (Sub-Variable - Report), (Andrew Major, Dana Teasdale, Peter Chesla, Ruta Rugabandana, Stephanie Lee)

2) Design Modifications to "Stair-Stepper" Propulsion System Used in Sub-Variable (Report), (Andrew Major)

3) ROV Project (Report), (Don Bauman, Justin Elyard, Ken Good)

4) Submersible Glider Topographic Surveyor (Report), (Anton Flewelling, Andrew Barron, Tom Hoag, Jason Strickland)

5) STINGRAY (FIT)-AUV, (Charles Cousin, Alex, Chiquinquira Gonzalez, Lee, Jenny, Eric, Lucy Massimillo)

Topic (1996)

1) Oceanographic Dropsonde (Report_Doc1, Doc2), (Jennifer Marr, Lucy Masimillo, Scott Seale, Michael Zarnetske)

Topic (1994)

1) Underwater Research Facility - Gateway to Space Colonization, (Crystallee Moffett, Alin Schmutz)

2) TOAD - Towed Oceanographic Analysis Device (Thierry Guth, Chuck Hohing, Charee Jackson, Robin Langenbach, Darryl Resio)

Topic (1993)

1) Human Powered Submarine (SeaFIT), Participated in the 3rd International Human Powered Submarine Race, Awarded "Best Maneuverability and Race Tactics", two 1st places (Launch and Recovery Vehicle), and one 3rd place (cost effectiveness).

(Chuck Lockert, Mark Johnson were the GSAs)

Topics (1991) These vehicles were entered into the International Human Powered Speed championships -race results can be seen at: http://www.recumbents.com/wisil/Racing/1991-ihpsc-results.htm

1) Human Powered Surface Vehicle 1 (H.P.V "Freedom Foil")

1) Human Powered Surface Vehicle 2 (H.P.V "Hydro-Naught")

1) Human Powered Surface Vehicle 3 (H.P.V "Sardonic - Aqua Fox ??")

1) Human Powered Surface Vehicle 4 (H.P.V "Blade Runner")

(Chuck Lockert, Pete Peterson, and Dave Rackmales were the GSAs)

Topic (1989 & 91)  1991was the last race held in the ocean on the east coast of Florida

1) Human Powered Submarine (Sea Panther), Participated in the 1st International Human Powered Submarine Race June 22-25, Riviera Beach Florida, Achieved 3rd place overall and the 4th fastest time.  "Sea Panther" currently resides in the Ft. Lauderdale Museum of Science & Discovery.

(1991 Phil Venanzia & Pete Peterson) (1989 Chuck Lockert and Mark Johnson were the GSAs)

Topic (1988)

1) Remotely Operated Vehicle (Report), (Kent S. Prieskorn)

These three human powered submarines were build before the competition series started so they raced against themselves. The human powered submarine races were created after invited representatives from FAU and ??? came and view Florida Tech's human powered submarine races.

1) Human Powered Submarine 1 (Pogo-Stick) (built by Chuck Lockert and Mark Johnson - GSAs)

2) Human Powered Submarine 2 (Barracuda) (built by Chuck Lockert and Mark Johnson - GSAs)

3) Human Powered Submarine 3




Dr. Stephen Wood

MWF: 3:00-4:00, Room Link E250


OCE 4541: Ocean Engineering Design

Week Date Reading* Topics Notes & Assignments

  • Introduction, Organization, Discussion of Projects

  • Discussion of Projects

  • The Design Process - (Lecture)

  • Report Preparation - (Lecture)

  • Group Discussion Sessions - (Teams)

  • Planning and Scheduling - (Lecture) .

  • Group Working Sessions - (Teams)

  • Engineering Drawings - (Lecture)

  • Introduction to Team Building - (Lecture)

  • Project Management/Microsoft Project

  • Modeling and Simulation - (Lecture)

  • Oral Progress Reports

  • Materials Selection - (Lecture)

  • Project Funding/External - (Lecture) 

  • Design Optimization and Analysis - (Lecture)

  • Spring Break

  • Spring Break

  • Introduction to Cruise Planning

  • Preliminary Design Review - Oral

  • Cruise Overview and cruise plan reality check PDR WrittenReportDue

  • Quality Engineering - (Lecture)

  • Group Discussion Sessions - (Teams)

  • Engineering Ethics - (Lecture)

  • Quality Engineering - (Lecture)

  • Communication and Reporting - (Lecture)

  • Group Working Sessions - (Teams)

  • Environment, Safety, and Health - (Lecture)

  • Presentations of Analyses by Student Teams

  • Student Design Showcase

  • Final Term Presentations

  • Final Term Presentations Final Written Report Due

GRADING: Oral Presentations 20% Assignments 10%

Major Written Reports 20% Tri-Weekly Progress Forms 10%

Individual Participation & Attendance 20% Midterm Examination 20%

NOTE: Individual and group efforts will both be evaluated.


(1) Ertas, A., and J.C. Jones, The Engineering Design Process, John Wiley & Sons, 1993.

(2) Dieter, G.E., Engineering Design: A Materials and Processing Approach, McGraw-Hill, 1991.

(3) Eric Green Associates, Marine Composites, ISBN 0-9673692-0-7, 1999.

(4) Dixon, J.R., and C. Poli, Engineering Design and Design for Manufacturing, Field Stone Publishers, 1995.

(5) Avallone, E.A., and T. Baumeister, Mark's Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers, 10th Ed., McGraw-Hill, 1996.