Thermal and Energy Systems Research

 

PI: P.-f. Hsu

 

 

Capabilities:

 

Numerical modeling of multi-dimensional transient and steady state heat transfer processes: radiation heat transfer in flames and thermal systems, remote sensing and optical diagnostics using ultra-short pulsed laser, transient radiative transport in bio- and microscale systems, radiative properties of thin films with surface roughness, combined mode heat transfer, premixed combustion with detail multi-step chemistry kinetics, and electromagnetic wave scattering of small particles and random roughness surfaces.

 

Experimental study of premixed combustion within porous ceramic burner, thermophysical properties of porous ceramics, and emissions of porous ceramic burner. Radiation heat flux and surface property measurement. Industrial air-conditioning systems and heat exchangers designs with computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer software tools.

 

 

AWARDS

 

Florida Tech College of Engineering Faculty Excellence Award in Research, 2004.

NASA/ASEE Faculty Fellowship (declined due to schedule conflict), 2003.

The Boeing Company Welliver Faculty Fellowship, 2002.

 

 

On-going projects:

 

Radiative Properties of the Thin-Film Materials

 

The research will develop a fundamental and quantitative understanding of the surface roughness effects on the radiative properties of silicon-based thin film materials. The thin films usually have a randomly rough back surface and a smooth or periodically patterned front surface. Thin film materials have many diverse scientific and engineering applications, e.g., semiconductor chips, solar cells, and electro-optical components. During the manufacturing of these materials, the heating and cooling rates as well as the associated radiation pyrometry for temperature monitoring are critical steps that are needed to ensure the product quality and reliability. The surface roughness on the die areas and wafer backsides has the first order effects on the radiative properties and the temperature control. However, these effects can only be described qualitatively at the present time. Two different models will be developed and compared their relative effectiveness in predicting the radiative properties. The research will improve the advanced rapid thermal processes (RTP) in the semiconductor industry. The research is supported by NSF and in collaboration with semiconductor manufacturing companies.

 

(Left) wafer top side with devices - patterned roughness. The reflection in a diagonal strip shows different reflectivity at different wavelength. (Right) wafer back side with random roughness.

 

Ultrafast Short Pulse Lasers: Light Pulse Interactions with Scattering Media

 

Short pulse radiation is rapidly being deployed in many new applications such as bio-medical optical tomography, in-situ property evaluation, evaluation of particle size distribution, remote sensing of oceans and atmosphere, and others, where it is becoming imperative that accurate radiative models be developed to analyze, design, and optimize these applications. Short pulse radiation offers many unique features that have not been previously exploited in the study of radiative transport and which present opportunities to obtain accurate high-precision data and has the great potential for non-invasive, non-destructive diagnostics and imaging applications. In this research we have developed several numerical models that are computationally efficient, accurate, and scalable to large computer system to handle the most challenging problems. The fundamental study will have a direct impact on many new applications, as shown in some of our journal publications, and has led to a patent application. The research has been supported by Sandia National Lab and NSF.

 

Numerical Methods for Radiative Heat Transfer within Participating Media

 

The current capabilities for simulating participating-media radiative heat transfer are too limiting. Many of the practical engineering applications of radiative heat transfer have to be greatly simplified to be treated. There is a consensus in the heat transfer community that better modeling and solution techniques are very critical and in urgent need to study the radiative transport processes. These processes are relevant to applications such as combustion, advanced manufacturing techniques, laser surgery, medical imaging, atmospheric radiation budget, global warming effects, etc. I have developed a number of efficient and scalable numerical methods, which include Monte Carlo, reverse and quasi Monte Carlo, high order upwind scheme discrete ordinates method, and a number of schemes for the integral formulation of the radiative transport equation. In the latter case, a numerical solution of the multi-dimensional radiative transfer problems based on the YIX method involving the nonhomogeneous absorbing, emitting, anisotropic scattering, and nongray media has been developed to fill the need of better solution methods. The method has been shown to be accurate and flexible. Many engineering processes that involve radiative heat transfer can be solved with little or no simplification. The research has been supported by NSF.

 

The Combustion within the Porous Ceramics

 

This is a clean combustion technique using the porous ceramics for burner construction. The combustion of the gaseous fuel and air mixture occurs inside the solid matrix. Such combustion processes have received much attention in recent years from industry and academia in several nations. The porous ceramic burner can extend the flammability limits, has high turn-down ratio and favorable flame stability characteristics, and most importantly, generates very low NOx and CO emissions, which are subjected to various federal and state laws and regulations. The power generation and boiler operators are especially interested in the new burner designs and operations that have the potential to replace the existing burners. Our research in this area is currently funded by California Energy Commission. Partial support is also provided by a porous ceramics manufacturer.

 

Burner Table for Cylindrical, Dual-Layer Porous Ceramic Burner

 

 

Premixed Flame inside Porous Ceramic Disk

(In the initial warm-up stage)

 

 

Premixed Flame inside Porous Ceramic Disk

(Stable combustion is established)

 

 

Cylindrical Porous YZA burner: (from left to right) full flame, 1/3 flame, and irregular flame.

 

 

Parallel Computing of Heat Transfer and Fluid Dynamics Processes

 

Since the operation of Florida Tech's parallel processing system the Bluemarlin was in production run in 2001, we have gained tremendous amount of experience in using the cluster to solve research problems. The system was funded by NSF to a multi-disciplinary team. The parallel system has become a critical asset of the university for research and students' learning and training. Our group has developed and tested various numerical methods with the system, incl. Monte Carlo method, reverse Monte Carlo method, quasi-Monte Carlo method, integral equation solvers, and several others. It has also become a valuable, high performance computing tool for many faculty within the university to develop their own research work.

 

 

The 48-node Beowulf Cluster

(upgradeable to 96 processors), 32 GB system memory, and Myrinet low-latency network.

 

JOURNAL AND ARCHIVAL PUBLICATIONS

 

1) P.-f. Hsu (1982), "The Front Wheels Alignment in Military Vehicles," Ordnance Science J. (in Chinese), 14: pp.66-71.

2) J. D. Felske, P.-f. Hsu, and J. C. Ku (1986),"The Effect of Soot Particle Optical Inhomogeneity and Agglomeration on the Analysis of Light Scattering Measurement in Flames," J. Quant. Spect. & Rad. Transfer. 35(6): pp.447-465.

3) P.-f. Hsu, and J. R. Howell (1992), "Measurements of Thermal Conductivity and Optical Properties of Porous Partially Stabilized Zirconia," Exp. Heat Transfer 5: pp.293-313.

4) P.-f. Hsu, J. R. Howell, and R. D. Matthews (1993), "A Numerical Investigation of Premixed Combustion within Porous Inert Media," ASME J. Heat Transfer 115(3): pp.744-750.

5) P.-f. Hsu, W. D. Evans, and J. R. Howell (1993), "Experimental and Numerical Study of Premixed Combustion within Nonhomogeneous Porous Ceramics," Comb. Sci. & Tech. 90: pp.149-172.

6) P.-f. Hsu, and R. D. Matthews (1993), "The Necessity of Using Detailed Kinetics in Models for Premixed Combustion within Porous Media," Comb. and Flame 93: pp.457-466.

7) P.-f. Hsu, Z. Tan and J. R. Howell (1992), "A Correction of the YIX method for the Solution of Radiative Heat Transfer," to be submitted to AIAA J. Thermophysics and Heat Transfer.

8) P.-f. Hsu, Z. Tan and J. R. Howell (1993), "Radiative Transfer by the YIX Method in Nonhomogeneous, Scattering and Non-Gray Medium," AIAA J. Thermophysics & Heat Transfer 7(3): pp.487-495.

9) P.-f. Hsu and J. C. Ku (1994), "Radiative Heat Transfer in Finite Cylindrical Enclosures with Nonhomogeneous Participating Media," AIAA J. Thermophysics & Heat Transfer 8(3): pp.434-440.

10) P.-f. Hsu and J. C. Ku (1995), "Detailed Spectral Radiation Calculations for Nonhomogeneous Soot/Gas Mixtures Based on a Simulated Ethylene Jet Diffusion Flame," Proceedings of the Int. Symp. on Radiative Heat Transfer, pp.372-386, ed. by M.P. Menguc, Kusadasi, Turkey, August 1995, Begell House, Inc. NY.

11) P.-f. Hsu and Z. Tan (1995), "Recent Benchmarkings of Radiative Heat Transfer within Nonhomogeneous Participating Media and the Improved YIX Method," invited key-note lecture - Proceedings of the Int. Symp. on Radiation Transfer, pp.107-126, ed. by M.P. Menguc, Kusadasi, Turkey, August 1995, Begell House, Inc. NY.

12) P.-f. Hsu and J. T. Farmer (1997), "Benchmark Solutions of Radiative Heat Transfer within Nonhomogeneous Participating Media Using the Monte Carlo and YIX Methods," ASME J. Heat Transfer 119(1): pp.185-188.

13) P.-f. Hsu and Z. Tan (1997), "The Radiative and Combined Mode Heat Transfer within the L-shaped Nonhomogeneous and Nongray Participating Media," Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A: Applications 31(8): pp.819-836.

14) P.-f. Hsu, Z.-M. Tan, S.-H. Wu, and C.-Y. Wu (1999), "Radiative Transfer in Finite Cylindrical Homogeneous and Nonhomogeneous Scattering Media Exposed to Collimated Radiation," Numerical Heat Transfer Part A: Applications 35(6): pp. 655-679.

15) Z.-M. Tan, P.-f. Hsu, S.-H. Wu, and C.-Y. Wu, (2000), "Modified YIX Method and Pseudoadaptive Angular Quadrature for Ray Effects Mitigation," AIAA J. Thermophysics & Heat Transfer, 14(3): pp. 289-296.

16) Z.-M. Tan, and P.-f. Hsu (2001), "An Integral Formulation of Transient Radiative Transfer," ASME J. Heat Transfer, 123(3): pp.466-475.

17) P.-f. Hsu (2001), "Effects of Multiple Scattering and Reflective Boundary on the Transient Radiative Transfer Process," Int. J. Thermal Sciences, 40(6), pp. 539-549, June 2001.

18) Z.-M. Tan, and P.-f. Hsu (2002), "Transient Radiative Transfer in Three-Dimensional Homogeneous and Nonhomogeneous Participating Media," J. Quant. Spect. & Rad. Transfer, 73(2-5), pp. 181-194.

19) M. Sakami, K. Mitra, and P.-f. Hsu (2002), "Analysis of Light-Pulse Transport through Two-Dimensional Scattering and Absorbing Media," J. Quant. Spect. & Rad. Transfer, 73(2-5), pp. 169-179.

20) Book chapter: Radiative Transfer Modeling and Experiments Using Short Pulse Lasers, S. Kumar, P.-f. Hsu, K. Mitra, B. Garetz, Z. Guo, and J. Aber, Modeling and Simulation Based Life Cycle Engineering, ed. by Ken P. Chong, Sunil Saigal, Stefan Thynell, Harold S. Morgan, ISBN: 0415266440 by Taylor & Francis, 2002.

21) X. Lu and P.-f. Hsu (2003), "Parallel Computing of an Integral Formulation of Transient Radiation Transport," AIAA J. Thermophysics & Heat Transfer 17(4): pp.425-433.

22) J. C. Chai, P.-f. Hsu and Y. C. Lam (2004) "Three-Dimensional Transient Radiative Transfer Modeling Using the Finite-Volume Method" J. Quant. Spect. & Rad. Transfer. Vol. 86, Iss. 3, pp. 299-313, July 1, 2004.

23) X. Lu and P.-f. Hsu (2004), "Reverse Monte Carlo Method for Transient Radiative Transfer in Participating Media," ASME J. Heat Transfer, Vol. 126(4): pp. 621-627, Aug. 2004.

24) X. Lu and P.-f. Hsu (2005), "Reverse Monte Carlo Simulations of Light Pulse Propagation in Nonhomogeneous Media," J. Quant. Spect. & Rad. Transfer, Vol. 93(1-3), pp. 349-367.

25) X. Lu and P.-f. Hsu (2005), "Reverse Monte Carlo Simulations of Ultra-Short Light Pulse Propagation within Three-Dimensional Nonhomogeneous Media," AIAA J. Thermophysics & Heat Transfer, Vol. 19(3), pp. 353-359.

26) P.-f. Hsu (2005), A Low-NOx Porous Ceramics Burner Performance Study, EISG Report 02-14, California Energy Commission, peer-reviewed, institutional archive available online at www.energy.ca.gov/research/innovations.

27) K. Fu, P.-f. Hsu, and Z. M. Zhang (2006), "Unified Analytical Formulations of Thin-Film Radiative Properties Including Partial Coherence," Appl. Opt., Vol. 45(4), pp. 653-661, Feb. 2006.

28) P.-f. Hsu and T. Lai (2006), "Experimental Study of the Premixed Combustion within the Nonhomogeneous Porous Ceramic Media," under revision, to be submitted to Exp. Heat Transfer.

29) P.-f. Hsu (2006), "Optical Diagnostics Using Temporal Reflectance from a Pulsed Laser Irradiated Nonhomogeneous Medium," under revision, to be submitted to Appl. Optics.

30) C. Li and P.-f. Hsu (2006), "Emissions and Radiation Performance for Methane Combustion within a Porous Ceramic Burner," Clean Air Int. J. Environ. Comb. Tech., Vol. 7(4), pp. 1-18.

31) R. Zhou, P.-f. Hsu, and B. T. Vu (2006), "A Large Water Cell Heating System Design Using CFD," under review by Appl. Thermal Engineering.

32) P.-f. Hsu and X. Lu (2007), "Temporal Reflectance from a Light Pulse Irradiated Medium Embedded with Highly Scattering Cores," accepted by J. Quant. Spect. & Rad. Transfer.

33) K. Fu and P.-f. Hsu (2007), "Radiative Property of Gold Surfaces with One-Dimensional Microscale Gaussian Random Roughness," under review by Int. J. Thermophysics.

34) L. H. Liu and P.-f. Hsu (2007), "Analysis of Transient Radiative Transfer in Semitransparent Graded Index Medium," accepted by J. Quant. Spect. & Rad. Transfer.

35) K. Fu and P.-f. Hsu (2007), "Modeling the Radiative Properties of Microscale Randomly Roughness Surfaces," ASME J. Heat Transfer - special issue on micro- and nano-scale radiation heat transfer, Vol. 129(1); pp. 71-78.

36) L. H. Liu and P.-f. Hsu (2007), "Superposition Principle for Solving Transient Radiative Transfer Equation," under review by ASME J. Heat Transfer.

37) R. Buchanon and P.-f. Hsu (2007), "Bi-Directional Reflectivity of Surfaces with Two-Dimensional Microscale Anisotropic Roughness," to be submitted to Optics Engr.

38) K. Fu, Y.-B. Chen, P.-f. Hsu, Z. M. Zhang, and P. Timans (2007), "Device Scaling Effect on the Spectral Absorptance of Wafer Front Side," to be submitted to Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer.

 

Results in journal articles # 11 and 12 and conference paper #11 have been incorporated in a widely used graduate level radiation heat transfer text by Siegel and Howell (2002).

 

 

PEER-REVIEWED CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS

 

1) Y.-K. Chen, P.-f. Hsu, I.-G. Lim, Z.-H. Lu, R. D. Matthews, J. R. Howell, and S. P. Nichols (1988), "Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Combustion within porous inert media," Poster Paper P22-207, presented at the 22nd Symposium (Int'l) on Combustion, Seattle, WA, August 1988.

2) P.-f. Hsu, J. R. Howell, and R. D. Matthews (1991), "A Numerical Investigation of Premixed Combustion within Porous Inert Media," presented at the 3rd ASME/JSME Joint Thermal Engineering Conference, Reno, NV, March 1991, Proceedings vol. 4: pp.225-231.

3) P.-f. Hsu, Z. Tan, and J. R. Howell (1992), "Application of the YIX Method to Radiative Heat Transfer within a Mixture of Highly Anisotropic Scattering Particles and Non-Gray Gas," presented at the 28th National Heat Transfer Conf., San Diego, CA, August 1992. ASME HTD-vol.203: pp.285-300.

4) P.-f. Hsu (1995), "Radiative Heat Transfer within Nonhomogeneous Participating Media by the YIX Method" presented at the 6th CASAF Conf., Boca Raton, FL, June 1995, Proceedings: pp.19-29.

5) P.-f. Hsu (1995), "Preliminary Study of a Gas Burner-Driven and Ground-Coupled Heat Pump System" presented at the 30th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conf., Orlando, FL, July 1995, Paper No. CT-317, Proceedings vol. 3: pp.69-74.

6) S. P. Burns, P.-f. Hsu, and J. T. Farmer (1995), "Optical Distance Calculation within Materials with Spatially Varying Radiative Properties," presented at the 30th National Heat Transfer Conference - Open Forum for Radiative Heat Transfer in Participating Media, Portland, OR, August 1995.

7) Z. Tan and P.-f. Hsu (1995), "High Order Interpolation in the YIX Method," presented at the 30th National Heat Transfer Conference - Open Forum for Radiative Heat Transfer in Participating Media, Portland, OR, August 1995.

8) P.-f. Hsu and J. T. Farmer (1995), "Benchmark Solutions of Radiative Heat Transfer within Nonhomogeneous Participating Media Using the Monte Carlo and YIX Methods," presented at the 30th National Heat Transfer Conference, Portland, OR, August 1995, ASME HTD-vol.315: pp.29-36.

9) P.-f. Hsu and Z. Tan (1996), "The Radiative and Combined Mode Heat Transfer within the L-shaped Nonhomogeneous and Nongray Participating Media," presented at the 31st National Heat Transfer Conference, Houston, TX, August 1996, ASME HTD-vol.325: pp.13-24.

10) P.-f. Hsu (1996), "Experimental Study of the Premixed Combustion within the Nonhomogeneous Porous Ceramic Media," presented at the 31st National Heat Transfer Conference, Houston, TX, August 1996, ASME HTD-vol.328: pp.1-10.

11) S.-H. Wu, C.-Y. Wu, and P.-f. Hsu (1996), "Solutions of Radiative Transfer in Inhomogeneous Participating Media Using the Quadrature Method," presented at the ASME 1996 Int. Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, Atlanta, GA, November 1996, ASME HTD-vol.332: pp.101-108.

12) P.-f. Hsu, Z.-M. Tan, S.-H. Wu, and C.-Y. Wu (1998), "Radiative Transfer in a Finite Cylindrical Enclosure with Homogeneous and Nonhomogeneous Scattering Media Exposed to Collimated Radiation," presented at the Open Forum of Radiative Heat Transfer Solution Methods at the 1998 ASME/AIAA Joint Thermophysics and Heat Transfer Conference, Albuquerque, NM.

13) Z.-M. Tan, P.-f. Hsu, S.-H. Wu, and C.-Y. Wu, (1999), "The QM-YIX Method and Adaptive Angular Quadrature for Ray Effects Mitigation," presented at the 1999 National Heat Transfer Conference, Albuquerque, NM, August 1999.

14) Z.-M. Tan and P.-f. Hsu (1999), "Numerical Results of an Integral Formulation of Transient Radiative Transfer," presented at the ASME 1999 Int. Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, Nashville, TN, November 1999. Advances in Heat and Mass Transfer in Biotechnology, 1999, HTD-Vol. 363, BED-Vol. 44, pp. 153-162, edited by E. P. Scott.

15) P.-f. Hsu (2000), "Effects of Multiple Scattering and Reflective Boundary on the Transient Radiative Transfer Process," the 2000 National Heat Transfer Conf. Proceedings paper NHTC2000-12078, Pittsburgh, PA, August 2000.

16) Z.-M. Tan, and P.-f. Hsu (2000), "An Integral Formulation of Transient Radiative Transfer: Theoretical Investigation," the 2000 National Heat Transfer Conf. Proceedings paper NHTC2000-12077, Pittsburgh, PA, August 2000.

17) A. Sawetprawichkul, P.-f. Hsu, and K. Mitra (2000), "A Monte Carlo Study of the Transient Radiative Transfer within the One-Dimensional Layered Slab," ASME 2000 Int. Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, ASME HTD-Vol. 366-1, pp. 145-153, Orlando, FL, November 2000.

18) M. Sakami, K. Mitra, and P.-f. Hsu (2000), "Transient Radiative Transfer in Anisotropically Scattering Media using Monotonicity-Preserving Schemes," ASME 2000 Int. Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, ASME HTD-Vol. 366-1, pp. 135-143, Orlando, FL, November 2000.

19) Z.-M. Tan, and P.-f. Hsu (2001), "Transient Radiative Transfer in a Three-Dimensional Participating Medium," Proceedings of the 2001 Int. Symp. Radiative Transfer, Antalya, Turkey, June 2001.

20) M. Sakami, K. Mitra, and P.-f. Hsu (2001), "Analysis of Light-Pulse Transport through Two-Dimensional Scattering and Absorbing Media," Proceedings of the 2001 Int. Symp. Radiative Transfer, Antalya, Turkey, June 2001.

21) P.-f. Hsu (2002), "Optical Diagnostics Using Temporal Reflectance from a Ultra-Short Pulsed Laser," AIAA paper No. 2002-3106, Proceedings of the 8th AIAA/ASME Joint Thermophysics & Heat Transfer Conf., St Louis, Missouri, June 2002.

22) A. Sawetprawichkul, P.-f. Hsu, and K. Mitra (2002), "Parallel Computing of Three-Dimensional Monte Carlo Simulation of Transient Radiative Transfer in Participating Media," AIAA paper No. 2002-2901, Proceedings of the 8th AIAA/ASME Joint Thermophysics & Heat Transfer Conf., St Louis, Missouri, June 2002.

24) X. Lu and P.-f. Hsu (2003), "Parallel Computing Performance of Two Numerical Quadratures for an Integral Formulation of Transient Radiative Transfer Process," ASME Paper No. HT2003-47235, Proceedings of the ASME Summer Heat Transfer Conf., Las Vegas, NV, July 2003.

25) X. Lu, P.-f. Hsu, and J. C. Chai (2003), "Transient Radiative Transfer of Light Pulse Propagation in Three-Dimensional Scattering Media with Finite Volume Method and Integral Equation Model," ASME Paper No. HT2003-47455, Proceedings of the ASME Summer Heat Transfer Conf., Las Vegas, NV, July 2003.

26) X. Lu and P.-f. Hsu (2003), "Reverse Monte Carlo Method for Transient Radiative Transfer in Participating Media," ASME Paper No. IMECE2003-41932, Proceedings of the ASME Int. Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, Washington, DC, Nov. 2003.

27) N. Torlak and P.-f. Hsu (2004) "Feasibility of a Fiber-Optic Sensor for High-Speed High-Pressure Cryogenic Flow Rate Measurement," AIAA Paper No.2004-0824, Proceedings of the AIAA 42nd Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, NV, Jan. 2004.

28) X. Lu and P.-f. Hsu (2004), "Reverse Monte Carlo Simulations of Light Pulse Propagation in Nonhomogeneous Media Part I: Theoretical Development," Proceedings of the Fourth Int. Symp. of Radiation Transfer, Istanbul, Turkey, June 20-25 2004.

29) X. Lu and P.-f. Hsu (2004), "Reverse Monte Carlo Simulations of Light Pulse Propagation in Nonhomogeneous Media Part II: Numerical Simulations," Proceedings of the Fourth Int. Symp. of Radiation Transfer, Istanbul, Turkey, June 20-25 2004.

30) X. Lu and P.-f. Hsu (2004), "Reverse Monte Carlo Simulations of Ultra-Short Pulse Propagation within Three-Dimensional Nonhomogeneous Media," AIAA Paper No.2004-2680, Proceedings of Thermophysics Conf., Portland, OR, June 28 July 1 2004.

31) K. Fu, P.-f. Hsu and Z. M. Zhang (2004), "Radiative Properties of Silicon-Based Thin Films for Partially Coherent Radiation", Proceedings of the 12th IEEE Int. Conf. on Advanced Thermal Processing of Semiconductors- RTP 2004, pp. 185-193, Portland, OR, September 2004.

32) C. Li and P.-f. Hsu (2005), "Emissions and Radiation Efficiency for Methane Combustion within a Porous Medium Burner," AIAA paper No. 2005-5639, The Third Int. Energy Conversion Engr. Conf., San Francisco, August 2005.

33) P.-f. Hsu and X. Lu (2005), "Temporal Reflectance from a Light Pulse Irradiated Medium Embedded with Highly Scattering Cores," invited presentation at EUROTHERM Seminar 82 - Numerical Heat Transfer 2005, Gliwice-Cracow, Poland, September 13-16, 2005.

34) R. Zhou, P.-f. Hsu, and B. T. Vu (2005), "A Large Water Cell Heating System Design Using CFD," The 2005 Thermal & Fluids Analysis Workshop - NASA, Orlando, FL. August 8-12, 2005.

35) A. Asano, P.-f. Hsu, and B. Lojek (2005), "Temperature Non-Uniformity from Combined Conduction and Radiation Heat Transfer within a Doped Wafer," Proceedings of the 13th IEEE Int. Conf. on Advanced Thermal Processing of Semiconductors- RTP 2005, Santa Barbara, October 2005.

36) K. Fu and P.-f. Hsu (2005), "The FDTD Computation of Electromagnetic Wave Scattering from Wafer Surfaces," Proceedings of the 13th IEEE Int. Conf. on Advanced Thermal Processing of Semiconductors- RTP 2005, Santa Barbara, October 2005.

37) K. Fu and P.-f. Hsu (2005), "Modeling the Radiative Properties of Microscale Random Roughness Surfaces," ASME Paper No. IMECE2005-81292, ASME Int. Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, Orlando, FL, November 2005.

38) K. Fu and P.-f. Hsu (2006), "Radiative Properties of Two-Dimensional Rough Surfaces based on an Electromagnetic Wave Scattering Model," Proceedings of the AIAA/ASME Joint Thermophysics and Heat Transfer Conf., San Francisco, CA, June 2006.

39) K. Fu and P.-f. Hsu (2006), "Radiative Property of Gold Surfaces with One-Dimensional Microscale Gaussian Random Roughness," Proceedings of the 16the Symposium on Thermophysical Properties, Colorado Springs, CO, July, 2006.

40) K. Fu, Y.-B. Chen, P.-f. Hsu, and Z. M. Zhang (2006), "Device Scaling Effect on the Spectral Absorptance of Wafer Front Side," Proceedings of the 14th IEEE Int. Conf. on Advanced Thermal Processing of Semiconductors- RTP 2006, Kyoto, Japan, October 2006.

41) K. Fu and P.-f. Hsu (2006), "Revisit the Regime Map of the Geometric Optics Approximation for Scattering from Random Rough Surfaces," ASME Int. Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, Chicago, IL, November 2006.

42) Z. F. Huang, H. C. Zhou, P. F. Hsu, and Q. Cheng (2007), "The Existence of Pulsewidth Scaling Relation for Optical Imaging Using Ultrafast Lasers," to be presented at the Fifth Int. Symp. of Radiation Transfer, Turkey, June 2007.

43) K. Fu and P.-f. Hsu (2007), "New Regime Maps of the Geometric Optics Approximation for Scattering from Random Rough Surfaces," to be presented at the Fifth Int. Symp. of Radiation Transfer, Turkey, June 2007.

44) R. Zhou, P.-f. Hsu, and B. Vu (2007), "Plume Cratering Simulation and Comparison with Experimental Data," abstract submitted to AIAA Applied Fluid Dynamics Conf., June 2006.

45) R. Buchanon and P.-f. Hsu (2007), "Bi-Directional Reflectivity of Wafer Backside with Two-Dimensional Microscale Anisotropic Roughness," to appear in the Proceedings of the 14th IEEE Int. Conf. on Advanced Thermal Processing of Semiconductors- RTP 2007, Sicily, Italy, October 2007.