Fluctuating sources or loads require energy storage to even power flows.
- Charging Voltages (per cell)
Lead Acid, Starting
Charging: 2.25 V/cell; Float: 2.25V?; Discharge cut-off: 1.9V?; Equalization: 2.2-2.3VPC (volts per cell)
Lead Acid, Deep-Cycle
Charging: 2.3 V?/cell; Float: 2.25V?; Discharge cut-off: 1.75V; Equalization: 2.58-2.67 VPC
Lead Acid, Sealed or Gel-Cell
Charging: 2.4 V/cell; Float: 2.25V; Discharge cut-off: 1.9V
Lead-acid batteries may develop lead sulfate on the plates that can/will reduce active area. This lead sulfate may be removed by high current pulsing.
"Battery Storage and Maintenance"
Compressed Air or Other Fluid
Hydraulic Storage or Pumping Plants
Hydrogen, an energy carrier
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Storage/storage.htm updated 050104FRL