IMPORTANT EVENTS IN OCEAN ENGINEERING HISTORY

SUBMARINES (How Submarines Work)

A submarine is a vessel which has been designed for underwater operations. It has the capability to operate underneath the surface or on the surface of the water. This along with it's armament makes it a vital piece to our nations sea power and sea control.

Evidence of this type of craft goes back into history an estimated 2000 years. Aristotle has described for us a type of submersible chamber that was used in the year 332 B.C. These were used by the sailors of Alexander The Great during the blockade of Tiros in order to put obstacles and some types of charges of unknown kind.

In china there had also been a report that a primitive submarine was in existence around 200 B.C. In fact, this submarine was reported to be able to move by the bottom of the sea.

1578 - The first submarine design was drafted by William Borne but never got past the drawing stage. Borne's submarine design was based on ballast tanks which could be filled to submerge and evacuated to surface - these same principles are in use by today's submarines.

1620 - Cornelis Drebbel, a Dutchman, conceived and built an oared submersible (the first successful submarine). Cornelis had designed a wooden submersible vehicle encased in leather. It was able to carry 12 rowers and a total of 20 men. Amazingly enough, the vessel could dive to the depth of 20 meters and travel 10 km. He conducted several series of trips below the surface of the Thames River which lasted many hours. This early submarine was the first to address the problem of oxygen replenishment while submerged.  In constructing his submarine, Drebbel incorporated some of the ideas of William Bourne, a British mathematician and naval writer who had outlined a practical submergible vessel in 1578. Drebbel's experimental boat was made of wood covered by tight-fitting sheets of greased leather. Oars that protruded through the boat's sides propelled it through the water. The vessel traveled at an average depth of 4 m (13 ft) during its run from Greenwich to Westminster. Two tubes, kept above the water by floats, supplied air to the submersed vessel, which carried a dozen rowers plus several passengers

1653 De Son's Submersible Catamaran                           1692 Papin

       

 

REVOLUTIONARY WAR ERA

 

MID TO LATE 1800'S

GERMANY

RUSSIA

SPAIN

USA: CIVIL WAR - UNION

USA: CIVIL WAR - CONFEDERATE

 

ENGLAND

 

GREECE

FRANCE

 


USA

JAPAN

SWEDEN

DUTCH

RESEARCH

RV TRIESTE

Type: Deep Submergence Vessel
Length: 59.5 feet
Beam: 11.5 feet
Draft: 18 feet (loaded)
Displacement: 50 tons without gasoline; 150 tons with gasoline
Operating Crew: One crew member and one scientist
Buoyancy Control: Water buoyancy control; compressed air for positive buoyancy, sea water for negative buoyancy. Gasoline could be pumped out to speed descent.

Built in 1953, by Swiss professor, scientist and explorer August Piccard. His son Jacques later worked with him on over 100 test dives, 26 of which were financed by the U.S. Navy. Trieste was purchased by the Navy in 1958. In 1960, she made her record-breaking dive. She dove 35,800 feet near the Marianas Islands. Three years later, Trieste located the remains of the lost submarines USS Thresher and USS Scorpion. (reference: http://www.hnsa.org/ships/trieste.htm)

RV TRIESTE II DSV 1

Length: 78 feet
Beam: 15 feet; 18+ feet at propeller pods
Design Depth: 20,000 feet
Displacement: 85 tons on the surface (empty); 336 tons submerged
Operating Crew: Two crew members and one scientist
Submerged Endurance: 12 hours at 2 knots
Buoyancy Control: Uses fuel-buoyancy control; aviation gasoline for positive buoyancy and iron shot for negative buoyancy

(reference: http://www.hnsa.org/ships/triesteii.htm)

 

MODERN

A side note that was published in the 2001 November issue of the Scientific American about their 1901 November issue concerning the 1st nautical periscope:

(NOVEMBER 1901 "THE FIRST NAUTICAL PERISCOPE? - "An Italian engineer, Signor Triulzi, has devised a special instrument, the 'cleptoscope,' whereby it is possible for the crew of a submarine boat to ascertain what is progressing on the surface while submerged. It comprises a tube fitted with crystal prisms. Experiments were carried out on board the submarine IL Delphino in the presence of the Italian Minister of the Marine.  Photosgraphs of objects on the surface were successfully obtained." [Editors' note: Simon Lake is usually credited with the invention of the periscope, in 1902.]) (reference - Scientific America: 2001/1101issue/110150100.html. Stix:2001:NSF. [554] Gary Stix. News scan:. Facing. a new menace. Scientific American, 285(5):14, November 2001. CO- ...www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sciam2000.ps.gz )